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Höhere Atom- und Molekülphysik
Advanced Atomic and Molecular Physcis

12

English

#20757 / #1

Seit WS 2020/21

Fakultät II

EW 3-1

Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik

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Smirnova, Olga

Smirnova, Olga

smirnova@tu-berlin.de

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Learning Outcomes

The module Advanced Atomic and Molecular Physics offers lectures and extensive exercises and projects presenting the key physical concepts, the key experiments and theoretical tools of modern Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (AMOP) with the focus on Atomic Physics (Attosecond Physics + Advanced Atomic Physics, Track I) and links to quantum information or with the focus on Molecular Physics and links to soft and condensed matter (Attosecond Physics + Intermolecular Forces, Track II). (Track I) Upon completion of Track I, the students will learn the following key concepts, experimental and theoretical tools: (i) Key concepts: Entanglement, laser cooling and trapping, Bose-Einstein condensation, cold Rydberg gases and long-range many-body interaction, time and frequency standards, free electron lasers (FELs), ionization, laser-dressed atoms, optical tunnelling, tunnelling time, sub-laser-cycle dynamics, quantum trajectories, rescattering, high harmonic generation, Kramers-Henneberger atom, electron spin-polarization, circular dichroism, chirality, quantum computer. (ii) Experimental tools: Development of precision spectroscopy with (ultra-)cold atom gases and single atoms or ions, the experimental realization of entangled atomic states in ion traps and cold Rydberg gases, time-resolved spectroscopy using novel intense short pulsed lasers, (supersonic) molecular beam, vacuum techniques, storage of charged and neutral particles, most recent laser and electron/ion spectroscopic detection techniques (frequency comb, reaction microscope). (iii) Theoretical Tools: Multichannel quantum defect theory, autoionization and Fano theory , time-dependent quantum mechanics and wavepacket dynamics, Keldysh theory and strong-field S-matrix methods, time-dependent semi-classical methods and quantum trajectories, Kramers-Henneberger approach, methods for numerical solution of time-dependent Schrödinger equation in strong laser fields, applications of quantum chemistry methods to time-dependent molecular response including non-Hermitian quantum mechanics. At the end of the course, the students will be able to competently apply the above theoretical tools to analyse and design the experiments aimed at imaging electron dynamics in atoms and molecules and high resolution spectroscopy. (Track II) Upon completion of Track II , the students will learn the following key concepts, experimental and theoretical tools. (i) Key concepts: Intermolecular interaction potential, Pauli repulsion, dispersion and van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonds, proton transfer, proton tunnelling, zero-point energy, dissociation, ionization, laser-dressed electronic states, optical tunnelling, tunnelling time, sub-laser-cycle field driven dynamics, quantum trajectories, rescattering, high harmonic generation, Kramers-Henneberger atom, spin-polarization, molecular chirality. (ii) Experimental tools: molecular spectroscopy, scattering experiments, tools for probing intermolecular potentials, differences to chemical bonds, long-range and short-range contributions. (iii) Theoretical tools: Methods for determination of intermolecular potentials, differences to chemical bonds, long-range and short-range contributions, classical and quantum mechanical description of intermolecular forces, time-dependent quantum mechanics, wavepacket dynamics, Keldysh theory and strong-field S-matrix methods, time-dependent semiclassical methods and quantum trajectories, Kramers-Henneberger approach, methods for numerical solution of time-dependent Schrödinger equation in strong laser fields, applications of quantum chemistry methods to time-dependent molecular response including non-Hermitian quantum mechanics. At the end of the course, the students will be able to competently apply the above theoretical tools to analyze and design the experiments aimed at intermolecular potentials, imaging electron dynamics in atoms and molecules and high resolution spectroscopy or/and quantum information processing.

Content

SS: Attosecond Physics Nonlinear light-matter interaction: from one-photon to multi-photon processes. Electronic response to strong low-frequency fields: optical tunnelling and the Keldysh formalism. Above threshold ionization and related phenomena. Electron motion after strong-field ionization and its consequences: high harmonic generation, laser-induced electron diffraction and holography, correlated multi-electron processes. Ionization in circularly polarized fields and generation of attosecond spin-polarized electron beams. Attoclock and the tunnelling time problem. High harmonic spectroscopy in atoms and molecules: combining sub-angstrom spatial and sub-femtosecond temporal resolution. Generation and characterization of attosecond pulses and pulse trains. Time-resolved spectroscopy of electron dynamics using attosecond pulses. Ultrafast chirality: inducing and detecting electron currents in chiral molecules, extremely efficient chiral discrimination of molecules. Evolution of attosecond spectroscopy from atoms and molecules to solids: towards all-optical imaging of topological properties and phase transitions. WS (Track I): Advanced Atomic Physics Quantum mechanics of simple and complex atoms, simple quantum mechanical model systems entangled states, perturbation theory, experimental techniques (vacuum and atomic beam generation, ion/electron spectrometer, reaction microscope), laser techniques, Rydberg atoms, atoms in external fields, photoionization, Fano theory , multichannel quantum defect theory, atoms in strong laser fields, x-ray spectroscopy, free electron lasers, light-atom interaction in two and three level systems, precision spectroscopy, fundamental experiments, trapping and (laser) cooling of atoms and ions, Bose-Einstein condensation, atomic physics experiments for quantum computing and simulation. WS (Track II): Intermolecular Forces Examples and importance of intermolecular interactions in physics, chemistry, biology, and pharmacy; experimental and theoretical methods for determination of intermolecular potentials; differences to chemical bonds; long-range and short-range contributions; radial and angular dependence of individual components (electrostatic, induction and polarization, London dispersion, resonance forces, Pauli repulsion); classical and quantum mechanical description; properties and spectroscopic analysis of hydrogen bonds (definition, energy, geometry, importance, infrared spectrum, tunneling processes, proton transfer, zero-point energy effects, examples); van der Waals forces; types of crystals; properties of liquids; dynamics of intermolecular forces (energy dissipation, coupling, dissociation).

Module Components

Pflichtgruppe:

All Courses are mandatory.

Course Name Type Number Cycle Language SWS
Attosecond Physics UE 3237 L 1091 SS English 2
Attosecond Physics VL 3237 L 10913 SS English 4

Wahlpflichtanteil:

1 from the following courses must be completed.

Course Name Type Number Cycle Language SWS
Höhere Atomphysik IV 3237 L 362BIV WS German 2
Zwischenmolekulare Wechselwirkungen IV 3237 L 362IV WS German 2

Workload and Credit Points

Attosecond Physics (UE):

Workload description Multiplier Hours Total
Attendance 15.0 2.0h 30.0h
Pre/post processing 15.0 4.0h 60.0h
90.0h(~3 LP)

Attosecond Physics (VL):

Workload description Multiplier Hours Total
Attendance 15.0 4.0h 60.0h
Pre/post processing 15.0 8.0h 120.0h
180.0h(~6 LP)

Höhere Atomphysik (IV):

Workload description Multiplier Hours Total
Attendance 15.0 2.0h 30.0h
Pre/post processing 15.0 4.0h 60.0h
90.0h(~3 LP)

Zwischenmolekulare Wechselwirkungen (IV):

Workload description Multiplier Hours Total
Attendance 15.0 2.0h 30.0h
Pre/post processing 15.0 4.0h 60.0h
90.0h(~3 LP)
The Workload of the module sums up to 360.0 Hours. Therefore the module contains 12 Credits.

Description of Teaching and Learning Methods

Lectures with exercises, projects, and laboratory tours

Requirements for participation and examination

Desirable prerequisites for participation in the courses:

Experimental Physics I-IV (mechanics, electromagnetism, optics, atomic and molecular physics, quantum physics). Theoretical Physics I-II (classical and quantum mechanics).

Mandatory requirements for the module test application:

1. Requirement:
Leistungsnachweis Attosecond Physics
2. Requirement:
Leistungsnachweis Zwischenmolekulare Wechselwirkungen  or
Leistungsnachweis Höhere Atomphysik

Module completion

Grading

graded

Type of exam

Oral exam

Language

German/English

Duration/Extent:

30 minutes

Duration of the Module

This module can be completed in 2 semesters.

Maximum Number of Participants

This module is not limited to a number of students.

Registration Procedures

Oral exams are registered via the electronic registration system after making an appointment with the examiner.

Recommended reading, Lecture notes

Lecture notes

Availability:  unavailable

Electronical lecture notes

Availability:  available

Literature

Recommended literature
Attosecond and XUV Physics: Ultrafast Dynamics and Spectroscopy, Editors: Thomas Schultz, Marc Vrakking
Chang, Zenghu. Fundamentals of attosecond optics. CRC press, 2016.
F Krausz, M Ivanov, Reviews of Modern Physics 81 (1), 163, 2009
A.J. Stone, The Theory of Intermolecular Forces, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1996
G.C. Maitland, M. Rigby, E.B. Smith, W.A. Wakeham, Intermolecular Forces, Clarendon, Oxford, 1981
J. Israelachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces, Academic Press, New York 1992
C.J. Foot, Atomic Physics (Oxford Master Series in Atomic, Optical and Laser Physics), Oxford University Press
Hertel, Schulz, Atome, Moleküle und optische Physik 1, 2. Auflage 2017, Springer Lehrbuch
Hertel, Schulz, Atome, Moleküle und optische Physik 2, 2020, Springer Lehrbuch
Metcalf, van der Straten, Laser Cooling and Trapping (Graduate Texts in Contemporary Physics), Springer
Gallagher, T. (1994). Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge Monographs on Atomic, Molecular and Chemical Physics). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Assigned Degree Programs

This moduleversion is used in the following modulelists:

Verwendungen (4)
Studiengänge: 1 Stupos: 1 Erstes Semester: SoSe 2021 Letztes Semester: SoSe 2021

Students of other degrees can participate in this module without capacity testing.

This module can be chosen as Experimentelles Wahlpflichfach.

Miscellaneous

Depending on the preference of the participating students, parts of the module are taught in German or English language.